[citation needed] Liberal prayer books tend increasingly to also avoid male-specific words and pronouns, seeking that all references to God in translations be made in gender-neutral language. a. e. carr, Transforming Grace: Christian Tradition and Women's Experience (San Francisco 1988). New Catholic Encyclopedia. Both authors were among a number of feminist theologians who spoke at the first of three national "women-church" gatherings organized by Catholic groups that took place first in Chicago (1983), to be followed by assemblies in Cincinnati (1987) and Albuquerque (1993). Clark, Elizabeth A. Carr's volume, Transforming Grace: Christian Tradition and Women's Experience, probed doctrines of God and Christ as well as questions of theological method, women's ordination, and spirituality. The teachings of Guru Nanak focus on the singularity between men and women, with anything that differs denounced. m. hunt, Fierce Tenderness: A Feminist Theology of Friendship (New York 1991). This definition has inspired a process of theological reflection that begins with women's experience, in recognition of the fact that theology has been almost exclusively informed by the experiences of men. [42] Another form of claiming rights in power is that a few Muslim majority countries have produced more than seven female heads of state, including Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan, Mame Madior Boye of Senegal, Tansu Çiller of Turkey, and Megawati Sukarnoputri of Indonesia. [46]. san francisco: harper, 1991. Within Ancient Hinduism, women have been held in equal honour as men. Polytheistic reconstructionists focus on reconstructing polytheistic religions, including the various goddesses and figures associated with indigenous cultures. During an EATWOT meeting in Geneva in 1983, attended also by some theologians from Europe and the United States, feminists established a Women's Commission to address the issues of sexism in male liberation theology and racism in the white women's movement. The Goddess movement is a loose grouping of social and religious phenomena that grew out of second-wave feminism, predominantly in North America, Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand in the 1970s, and the metaphysical community as well. It was initially a keynote presentation at a conference at the University of Santa Cruz in 1978. A second direction brought about by an increased awareness of difference and diversity among women was that these issues themselves became the subject of feminist theological inquiry. "The Human Situation: A Feminine View," first published 1960. Ruether (1983), Carr (1988), Isasi-Díaz (1988, 1992), and Copeland (1996, 1998) are among those who deal extensively with questions of theological method, and they all regard attention to women's diverse experiences and the employment of sources beyond classical Christian texts as important for progress in the discipline. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Encyclopedia.com. Johnson, Elizabeth A. Feminists such as Linda Woodhead and Susan Parsons have raised similar concerns, arguing that feminist theology risks the sacrifice of a vital transcendent perspective of faith and hope in favor of a more modernist and individualistic rhetoric of women's liberation (Woodhead, 1997; Parsons, 2000). Carol Patrice Christ is a feminist historian, thealogian, author, and foremother of the Goddess movement. [44] Fatima Mernissi’s book, The Forgotten Queens of Islam, is a crucial piece in feminist theology for Islam and how it relates to a non western state. On the contrary, it enhances the Jewish understanding of God, which should not be limited to masculine metaphors. The term thealogy is sometimes used in the context of the Neopagan Goddess movement, a pun on theology and thea θεά "goddess" intended to suggest a feminist approach to theism. There are different approaches and versions of feminist theology that exist within the Jewish community. [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] Christian feminists often draw on the teachings of more historical texts that reinforce that feminism does not go against Christianity but has always been in its texts. "The Unexpected Defenders". The early phase in the U.S. feminist theological movement culminated in two historic events that took place in 1975. Feminist theology continues to expand upon and celebrate the variety of voices and experiences. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/legal-and-political-magazines/feminist-theology. One of the most well known published essay she has written is "Why Women Need The Goddess". Feminist theology consequently linked the voices and experiences of those excluded because of race, class, sexual orientation, disability, age, and gender. See also: Unity Church, Christian Science, Christian theological praxis and Postmodern Christianity. In theological spheres, egalitarianism generally means equality in authority and responsibilities between genders, in contrast to complementarianism. l. russell and j. s. clarkson (Louisville1996) 283–287. The position of the female body in Christian worship, language, and ethics is a central concern of feminist theology (Isherwood and Stuart 1998). Minneapolis, 1978. Sex differences in religion can be classified as either "internal" or "external". From woman, woman is born; without woman, there would be no one at all. Tensions and dissonances that reside in these differences are opportunities for creative new theological explorations. Organizational activities and feminist theological scholarship intensified in the second stage of the movement. [24] Christian feminists argue that contributions by women in that direction are necessary for a complete understanding of Christianity.