Users Guide to the Bluebook by Alan Dworsky 2015 revised for 20th ed. For example: You may also use “id.” to refer to a statute or regulation codified within the same title as the statute or regulation cited in the immediately preceding citation. Bluebook rule 1.3 prescribes the appropriate order when multiple signals are used. 2d 95. and "Compare.". There are three signals for conveying negative or contradictory support: "Contra" is used whenever the cited authority directly states a contradictory proposition and so is essentially the contradictory form of [no signal]. The Bluebook is the main citation manual for law in the U.S. Within each general class of signal, signals are arranged in order of greatest to least direct relationship to the assertion - so a signal indicating a direct quote would come before one indicating an inferential step. These rules, which are organized and affirmed through the production of a CFR citation, are treated by the courts as legally binding forms of statutory law, provided that the regulations are a reasonable interpretation of the underlying statutes. Do not use a signal with a citation when you have directly borrowed someone else’s … is classified as as signal indicating support (in rule 1.2(a)) rather than one of comparison. A reader can thus determine if a cited source supports or contradicts an author's assertion and whether it is necessary to take an inferential step between a cited source and the text simply by looking at the signal used. "�%�V�}��$��F���qw��|���0��x(�Oe@�����B��(��M���{���eJ8���hJ�%t~�Kz���"+I�����0wP�e�g̥7�a$Aw$�@o��X&۝"�����(��q����u�d`��^i�]�8K��Et���gLI*l��h�ř���x|{��DN���R���Ί2�SmZ�l��D�i���TBv���/��P��t�d��RyW�6Š̞�O�d��e�o/&�6Q�}�ۤR��b�)e�F��}*3��� Cf. Has appendix for law-related abbreviations. "But see" is used when the citation clearly supports a proposition contradictory to the textual assertion, and authority signaled by "But cf." %PDF-1.5 %���� Authored by the American Association of Law Libraries, this legal citation guide suggests a vendor-neutral format to facilitate the citation of online legal sources. Each rule and regulation in the Federal Register is given a CFR citation; the CFR citation is used to organize each rule based on title, subject or specific legal matter. When submitting written work to non-law journals, consult the journal to determine preferred citation format. Free online tool for abbreviations from the U.K. and Commonwealth countries. When filing legal documents with a court, court rules of citation apply. identifies the source referred to in the text. (Turabian) A Manual for Writers for Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style, 8th ed. No signal is necessary if a cited authority: "E.g.," is the abbreviation for the Latin phrase "exempli gratia," and can loosely be translated to mean "good example." In MLA style, cf. h�bbd``b`��� BH�X fN�"�@���p% ��@��H\x�����c`$@�gL� ` Y� Signals are important because they indicate how a cited authority relates to the text. According to the Administrative Procedure Act, these agencies are permitted to create detailed regulations through a public rulemaking process. is analogously contradictory to the textual assertion. This CFR citation can be cited immediately, without searching through confusing directories or waiting for a page number from the physical copy. The Bluebook has a rule for citing Internet resources, but the following guides are more detailed and may provide extra guidance. It is not comprehensive for foreign law. ��n2��{�L��{���1�=? This distinction is important when determining the order of signals and authorities, explained below. The National Archives and legal libraries throughout the United States will keep an online version of the CFR–known as the E-CFR—and update it two days after changes to the respective regulations I the Federal Register become effective. Law Review Typeface For Introductory Signals: Italics. In MLA style, cf. Compiled by the Law Review editors of Columbia, Harvard, University of Pennsylvania, and Yale, this guide is the most widely used citation manual for law. *��bf-���Œs�:�ju:{ӔM� Consult court rules for required citation format, usually found in the jurisdiction's Rules of Procedure. When filing legal documents with a court, court rules of citation apply. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. Introduction to Basic Legal Citation by Peter Martin, Bluebook Citation for LL.M. is a signal indicating that the cited source supports a different claim than the one just made, but that it is worthwhile to compare the two claims and assess the difference. Authority supports by analogy “ Cf. The use of this abbreviation indicates that another section of a particular work or another case or volume contains contrasting, comparable, or explanatory opinions and text. The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, 20th ed. "Cf." endstream endobj 129 0 obj <>/Metadata 4 0 R/PageLabels 124 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 126 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/StructTreeRoot 8 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 130 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 131 0 obj <>stream can be combined with other signals, such as "See." H��T�n�0��+�HMR�(A 灢ER�r�s��v�Ƣ �n��]Җ��*z���wvvvGWE4z��������pyyus ���#�U�����bq�9�hq�!1�����(�r(��+����z�*��ve�٬��cW��t ����}�Y Z��n�}�#q SbO���2gzW�Z�I$C�� ����;�!�L��!��W��sC�:��Q�g�g=�T�r�'`�d��&��6?XB�%��2�7cR���t�/����iUV�A�� ��։Wn=���)�Yӌ�(���� This distinction is important when determining … The Chicago Guide to Writing About Numbers, 2d ed. Law Review Typeface for Contradictory Signals: Italics. – compare (different but analogous – it doesn’t exactly support your statement but it is close). The aforementioned CFR citation would be read as, “title 42, part 260, section 14, paragraph a (2). Legal Citation Guides (US-based) Rule 1.2 of The Bluebook (20th ed.) The Indigo Book: An Open and Compatible Implementation of A Uniform System of Citation, Massachusetts SJC Official Reports Style Manual, A Guide to South Carolina Legal Research and Citation, (Texas) Manual on Usage and Style (Texas), Citation and Style Manual U.S. Dept. The CFR citation not only groups each rule and regulation but further organizes them by paragraph and title; this organizational system enables an individual to find very particular information in an expedited fashion. Focus is legal publications from the Commonwealth countries. To locate them, use this  HOLLIS search and add your jurisdiction. Editors from the New York University School of Law's Journal of International Law and Politics have prepared this citation manual focusing on foreign jurisdictions and international law. The most used list of legal abbreviations. It prescribes citation formats for most U.S. law sources. endstream endobj 132 0 obj <>stream Cite Right: A Quick Guide to Citation Styles--MLA, APA, Chicago, the Sciences, Professions, and More, 2d ed. SEMIOTICS, ANALOGICAL LEGAL REASONING, AND THE Cf. Used inside and outside of parentheses . citations in the same general discussion may employ any short form that clearly identifies the source (Rule 12.10, 13.8, 14.5). The use of this abbreviation indicates that another section of a particular work or another case or volume contains contrasting, comparable, or explanatory opinions and text. Schedule an online consult with a Librarian. For example, if the United States Congress passed a law that stated there are not be excessive levels of mercury in any body of water in the country, an entity, such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency could further define, through a scientific lens, what the exact meaning of an “excessive level of mercury” is. Parenthetical explanation encouraged. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. The agency’s definitions and its subsequent plan of enforcement will all be published into the code of federal regulations. or "Compare" is strongly encouraged. Administrative law, which is a type of public law, exists because the United States Congress typically grants authority to the agencies of the executive branch in order to interpret the statutes in the United States Code. Abbreviation for the Latin word confer, meaning "compare." This research guide lists citation manuals and dictionaries of legal abbreviations to help you with these tasks. Use it to find the full name of the reporter, code, or other legal source for which you only have the abbreviation. Each rule and regulation in the Federal Register is given a CFR citation; the CFR citation is used to organize each rule based on title, subject or specific legal matter. Abbreviations used in legal citation are often inscrutable, e.g., 54 F.R.D. NOTE: It is not appropriate to use See also for general background-reading materials; in that case, the signal "See generally" should be used (rule 1.2(d)). Whereas see also is used to direct a reader to a supplementary work, cf. 152 0 obj <>stream Contact Historical & Special Collections at, Drop-In Reference Visit our online Office Hours, Meet with Us  Schedule an online consult with a Librarian, Classes View Training Calendar or Request an Insta-Class, Harvard University Digital Accessibility Policy. "See also" is used to cite to additional materials and authority that supports a proposition but when other authority has already been cited to using either See or [no signal]. Signals indicating that the cited work is supportive of the author's text are the most commonly used type of signal. Exception: With legal citations use . The following abbreviation lists are usage oriented and include variants of citations as well as standard forms.